AlertArticles

How Old Was Judy Garland Wizard of Oz?

5/5

Judy Garland should have been a wealthy woman at the end of her life. After all, Garland starred in The Wizard of Oz, one of the most culturally important and successful movies of all time. The image of 16-year-old Garland as the windswept and wonderstruck Dorothy Gale, for which she won an Academy Award, was a symbol of Hollywood.

On June 10, 1922, a child named Frances Ethel Gumm was born to two vaudeville performers in Grand Rapids, MN. Of all the sisters, Garland stood out because of her extraordinary singing abilities an adults voice in a childs body.

In 1935, when Garland was 13, she was signed on the spot by Louis B. Meyer of MGM, the head of Hollywoods largest and most prestigious movie studio. I, Judy Garland, was born when I was 12 years old, she told Michael Drury for the Minneapolis Sunday Tribune in 1951 . As a part of MGMs cohort of young stars, Garland was forced to adapt to a grueling, nearly impossible schedule.

Originally, Shirley Temple was supposed to play Dorothy so the studio tried to make Garland look as young as possible. I think some of them are pretty angry with me, too, for not wearing braids, and not dressing like Dorothy, and not being 11 or 12, Garland told James Reid in 1940. Her obituary in the LA Times lists her illnesses: hepatitis, exhaustion, kidney ailments, nervous breakdowns, near-fatal drug reactions, overweight, underweight, and injuries suffered in falls.

How did Judy Garland died at 47?

When Judy Garland died of a drug overdose after struggling with addiction at age 47 in 1969, many were sad but few were surprised. … From clicking her heels in The Wizard Of Oz to tap-dancing in Summer Stock, Garland was a decades-long institution in Hollywood before her death.

How much did Judy Garland make for The Wizard of Oz?

Even today women are paid less than men, but in 1939, that was the norm. Despite carrying the movie as the leading role and appearing in almost every scene, Judy Garland was paid $500 per week compared to her male costars, Ray Bolger (Scarecrow) and Jack Haley (Tin Man), $3,000 per week.

There are icons, and then there are ICONS. By any metric, Judy Garland is an ICON. With a career beginning at age two and lasting 45 years until her untimely death in 1969, Garland did it all. She acted, sang, danced. She found success on stage, in movies, on television, and on radio, earning nominations or awards in each medium. In 1962, she became the first woman to be awarded the Grammy for Album of the Year (per Biography). She took a stand against the House Un-American Activities Committee during the Red Scare of the late 1940s and early ’50s (per LAist).

Actor Judy Garland starred in numerous famous films throughout her decades-long career. However, far and away the one she is best known for is The Wizard of Oz. Garland got her start in Hollywood at a young age. How old was she in The Wizard of Oz, and how long did her career last?

Theres the now-debunked rumor about a munchkin actor hanging themself, as well as the regular cast and director changes, which led to a lengthy production. Judy Garland entertains civilian employees at the Philadelphia Navy Yard during a War Bond Drive in 1944.

Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 June 22, 1969) was an American actress and singer. She is widely known for playing the role of Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939).[2][3] With a career spanning 45 years, she attained international stardom as an actress in both musical and dramatic roles, as a recording artist, and on the concert stage. Renowned for her versatility, she received an Academy Juvenile Award, a Golden Globe Award, and a Special Tony Award.[4][5][6] Garland was the first woman to win the Grammy Award for Album of the Year, which she won for her 1961 live recording titled Judy at Carnegie Hall.[7]

Years active19241969Known forPortraying Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz Height4 ft 11+12 in (151 cm)Political party Democratic Spouse(s)Children3, including Liza Minnelli and Lorna Luft Garland began performing in vaudeville as a child with her two older sisters, in a vaudeville group ” The Gumm Sisters ” and was later signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. Garland was a frequent on-screen partner of both Mickey Rooney and Gene Kelly and regularly collaborated with director and second husband Vincente Minnelli .

Other starring roles during this period included Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), The Harvey Girls (1946), Easter Parade (1948), and Summer Stock (1950). In 1950, after 15 years with MGM, the studio released her amid a series of personal struggles that prevented her from fulfilling the terms of her contract. [9] Throughout her adulthood she was plagued by alcohol and substance use disorders, as well as financial instability, often owing hundreds of thousands of dollars in back taxes .

Her lifelong substance use disorder ultimately led to her death in London from an accidental barbiturate overdose at age 47 in 1969. Frank bought and operated another theater in Lancaster, [21] and Ethel began managing her daughters and working to get them into motion pictures. Their final on-screen appearance was in an MGM Technicolor short entitled La Fiesta de Santa Barbara (1935).

The trio had toured the vaudeville circuit as “The Gumm Sisters” for many years by the time they performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater with George Jessel in 1934. A TV special was filmed in Hollywood at the Pantages Theatre premiere of A Star Is Born on September 29, 1954, in which Jessel stated: Not that it would have made any difference you couldn’t have hid[den] that great talent if you’d called her “Tel Aviv Windsor Shell”, you know, but her name when I first met her was Frances Gumm and it wasn’t the kind of a name that so sensitive a great actress like that should have; … and so we called her Judy Garland, and I think she’s a combination of Helen Hayes and Al Jolson , and maybe Jenny Lind and Sarah Bernhardt .

The group broke up by August 1935, when Suzanne Garland flew to Reno, Nevada , and married musician Lee Kahn, a member of the Jimmy Davis orchestra playing at Cal-Neva Lodge , Lake Tahoe. In September 1935, Louis B. Mayer asked songwriter Burton Lane to go to the Orpheum Theater in downtown Los Angeles to watch the Garland Sisters’ vaudeville act and to report to him. A few days later, Judy and her father were brought for an impromptu audition at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios in Culver City .

The studio did not know what to do with her; aged thirteen, she was older than the traditional child star, but too young for adult roles. She was only 4 ft 11+12 in (151 cm), and her “cute” or ” girl-next-door ” looks did not exemplify the most glamorous persona then required of leading female performers. “Judy went to school at Metro with Ava Gardner , Lana Turner , Elizabeth Taylor , real beauties”, said Charles Walters , who directed her in a number of films.

During her early years at the studio, she was photographed and dressed in plain garments or frilly juvenile gowns and costumes to match the “girl-next-door” image created for her. Eventually, on the set of Meet Me in St. Louis when she was 21 years old, Garland met Dorothy “Dottie” Ponedel, a makeup artist who worked at MGM. On November 16, 1935, 13-year-old Garland was in the midst of preparing for a radio performance on the Shell Chateaux Hour when she learned that her father had been hospitalized with meningitis and had taken a turn for the worse.

Garland performed at various studio functions and was eventually cast opposite Deanna Durbin in the musical-short Every Sunday (1936). The film contrasted her vocal range and swing style with Durbin’s operatic soprano and served as an extended screen test for them, as studio executives were questioning the wisdom of having two girl singers on the roster. [9] She was plagued with self-doubt throughout her life, despite successful film and recording careers, awards, critical praise, and her ability to fill concert halls worldwide, she required constant reassurance she was talented and attractive.

Garland was initially outfitted in a blonde wig for the part, but Freed and LeRoy decided against it shortly into filming. Her blue gingham dress was chosen for its blurring effect on her figure, which made her look younger. With the conclusion of filming, MGM kept Garland busy with promotional tours and the shooting of Babes in Arms (also 1939), directed by Busby Berkeley .

She and Rooney were sent on a cross-country promotional tour, culminating in the August 17 New York City premiere at the Capitol Theater , which included a five-show-a-day appearance schedule for the two stars. [9] In a further attempt to minimize her curves, her diet was accompanied by swimming and hiking outings, plus games of tennis and badminton with her stunt double Bobbie Koshay. The Wizard of Oz was a tremendous critical success, though its high budget and promotions costs of an estimated $4 million (equivalent to $58.8 million in 2019), coupled with the lower revenue that was generated by discounted children’s tickets, meant that the film did not return a profit until it was re-released in the 1940s and on subsequent occasions.

Garland starred in three films released in 1940: Andy Hardy Meets Debutante , Strike Up the Band , and Little Nellie Kelly . Little Nellie Kelly was purchased from George M. Cohan as a vehicle for her to display both her audience appeal and her physical appearance. In 1941, Garland had an abortion while pregnant with Rose’s child at the insistence of her mother and the studio since the pregnancy wasn’t approved.

One of Garland‘s most successful films for MGM was Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), in which she introduced three standards: ” The Trolley Song “, ” The Boy Next Door “, and ” Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas “. Ponedel refined her appearance in several ways, including extending and reshaping her eyebrows, changing her hairline, modifying her lip line and removing her nose discs and dental caps. During the filming of Meet Me in St. Louis , Garland and Minnelli had some initial conflict between them, but they entered into a relationship and married on June 15, 1945.

The main reasons for its failure were not only its cost, but also the increasing expense of the shooting delays while Garland was ill, as well as the general public’s unwillingness to accept her in a sophisticated film. Thrilled by the huge box-office receipts of Easter Parade , MGM immediately teamed Garland and Astaire in The Barkleys of Broadway . After being advised by her doctor that she would only be able to work in four- to five-day increments with extended rest periods between, MGM executive Arthur Freed made the decision to suspend her on July 18, 1948.

When her suspension was over, she was summoned back to work and ultimately performed two songs as a guest in the Rodgers and Hart biopic Words and Music (1948), which was her last appearance with Mickey Rooney. Having regained her strength, as well as some needed weight during her suspension, Garland felt much better and in the fall of 1948, she returned to MGM to replace a pregnant June Allyson for the musical film In the Good Old Summertime (1949) co-starring Van Johnson . Although she was sometimes late arriving at the studio during the making of this picture, she managed to complete it five days ahead of schedule.

She was fired from the picture on May 10, 1949, and was replaced by Betty Hutton , who stepped in to perform all the musical routines as staged by Berkeley. During her stay, she found solace in meeting with disabled children; in a 1964 interview regarding issues raised in A Child Is Waiting (1963) and her recovery at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Garland had this to say: “Well it helped me by just getting my mind off myself and … they were so delightful, they were so loving and good and I forgot about myself for a change”. Garland returned to Los Angeles heavier, and in the fall of 1949, was cast opposite Gene Kelly in Summer Stock (1950).

When principal photography on Summer Stock was completed in the spring of 1950, it was decided that Garland needed an additional musical number. When it was released in the fall of 1950, Summer Stock drew big crowds and racked up very respectable box-office receipts, but because of the costly shooting delays caused by Garland, the film posted a loss of $80,000 to the studio. Reputable biographies following her death stated that after this latest dismissal, she slightly grazed her neck with a broken glass, requiring only a Band-Aid , but at the time, the public was informed that a despondent Garland had slashed her throat.

Publicity photo of Garland in 1950Garland was a frequent guest on Kraft Music Hall , hosted by her friend Bing Crosby . Following Garland‘s second suicide attempt, Crosby, knowing that she was depressed and running out of money, invited her on to his radio show the first of the new season on October 11, 1950. Garland made eight appearances during the 195051 season of The Bing Crosby Chesterfield Show , which immediately reinvigorated her career.

The successful concert tour was the first of her many comebacks, with performances centered on songs by Al Jolson and revival of vaudevillian “tradition”. Garland performed complete shows as tributes to Jolson in her concerts at the London Palladium in April and at New York’s Palace Theater later that year. As shooting progressed, however, she began making the same pleas of illness that she had so often made during her final films at MGM.

At Luft’s suggestion, the “Born in a Trunk” medley was filmed as a showcase for her and inserted over director Cukor’s objections, who feared the additional length would lead to cuts in other areas. Before its release, it was edited at the instruction of Jack Warner; theater operators, concerned that they were losing money because they were only able to run the film for three or four shows per day instead of five or six, pressured the studio to make additional reductions. Although it was still popular, drawing huge crowds and grossing over $6,000,000 in its first release, A Star is Born did not make back its cost and ended up losing money.

She could not attend the ceremony because she had just given birth to her son, Joseph Luft, so a television crew was in her hospital room with cameras and wires to broadcast her anticipated acceptance speech. Groucho Marx sent Garland a telegram after the awards ceremony, declaring her loss “the biggest robbery since Brinks “. [107] Over the next few weeks, several quarts of fluid were drained from her body until she was released from the hospital in January 1960, still in a weak condition.

In 1961, Garland and CBS settled their contract disputes with the help of her new agent, Freddie Fields , and negotiated a new round of specials. The first, titled The Judy Garland Show , aired on February 25, 1962 [114] and featured guests Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin . She was several hundred thousand dollars in debt to the Internal Revenue Service , having failed to pay taxes in 1951 and 1952, and the failure of A Star is Born meant that she received nothing from that investment.

Garland‘s biographer Gerald Clarke , Ford’s son Peter, singer Mel Torm and her husband Sid Luft wrote about the affair in their respective biographies. The affair was ended by Ford (a notorious womanizer according to his son Peter) when he realized Garland wanted to marry him. Garland took part in recording an all-star October 26, 1947, radio broadcast, Hollywood Fights Back , during which she exhorted listeners to action: “Before every free conscience in America is subpoenaed, please speak up!

On August 28, 1963, Garland and other prominent celebrities such as Josephine Baker , Sidney Poitier , Lena Horne , Paul Newman , Rita Moreno , and Sammy Davis, Jr. took part in the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom , a demonstration organized to advocate for the civil and economic rights of African Americans. She had been photographed by the press in Los Angeles earlier in the month alongside Eartha Kitt , Marlon Brando , and Charlton Heston as they planned their participation in the march on the nation’s capital. On September 16, 1963, Garland along with daughter Liza Minnelli , Carolyn Jones , June Allyson , and Allyson’s daughter Pam Powell held a press conference to protest the recent bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama , that resulted in the death of four young African American girls.

Pam Powell and Liza Minnelli both announced their intention to attend the funeral of the victims during the press conference. [132] She had filed for divorce from Luft on several previous occasions, even as early as 1956, but they had reconciled each time. The crowd of 7,000 was angered by her tardiness and believed that she was drunk; they booed and heckled her, and she fled the stage after 45 minutes.

Garland‘s tour promoter Mark Herron announced that they had married aboard a freighter off the coast of Hong Kong. However, Garland eventually parted ways with Luft professionally, signing with agents Freddie Fields and David Begelman . According to co-star Patty Duke , Garland was treated poorly by director Mark Robson on the set of Valley of the Dolls and was primarily hired so as to augment publicity for the film.

Returning to the stage, Garland made one of her last U.S. appearances at New York’s Palace Theatre in July 1967, a 27-show stand, performing with her children Lorna and Joey Luft. She wore a sequined pantsuit on stage for this tour, which was part of the original wardrobe for her character in Valley of the Dolls . Garland earned more than $200,000 from her final run at New York’s Palace Theatre from her 75% share of the profits generated by her engagement there.

She performed in London at the Talk of the Town nightclub for a five-week run in which she was paid 2,500 per week, [110] and made her last concert appearance in Copenhagen during March 1969. On June 22, 1969, Garland was found dead in the bathroom of her rented house in Cadogan Lane , Belgravia , London. [7] At the inquest , Coroner Gavin Thurston stated that the cause of death was “an incautious self-overdosage ” of barbiturates ; her blood contained the equivalent of ten 1.5- grain (97 mg) Seconal capsules.

[155] Forensic pathologist Jason Payne-James believed that Garland had an eating disorder (psychologist Linda Papadopoulos asserted that it was probably bulimia nervosa ), which contributed to her death. After Garland‘s body had been embalmed, Deans traveled with her remains to New York City on June 26, where an estimated 20,000 people lined up to pay their respects at the Frank E. Campbell Funeral Chapel in Manhattan , which remained open all night long to accommodate the overflowing crowd. On June 27, James Mason gave an eulogy at the funeral, an Episcopal service led by the Rev.

Peter Delaney of St Marylebone Parish Church , London, who had officiated at her marriage to Deans, three months earlier. [157] “Judy‘s great gift”, Mason said in his eulogy, “was that she could wring tears out of hearts of rock…. She gave so richly and so generously, that there was no currency in which to repay her.” She was interred in a crypt in the community mausoleum at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York , a small town 24 miles (39 km) north of midtown Manhattan .

In her last will, signed and sealed in early 1961, Garland made many generous bequests that could not be fulfilled because her estate had been in debt for many years. Her daughter, Liza Minnelli , worked to pay off her mother’s debts with the help of family friend Frank Sinatra . [169] The Richmond Times-Dispatch correspondent Tony Farrell wrote she possessed “a deep, velvety contralto voice that could turn on a dime to belt out the high notes”.

[165] Ron O’Brien, producer of tribute album The Definitive Collection Judy Garland (2006), wrote the singer’s combination of natural phrasing , elegant delivery, mature pathos “and powerful dramatic dynamics she brings to … songs make her [renditions] the definitive interpretations”. The Huffington Post writer Joan E. Dowlin called the period of Garland‘s music career between 1937 and 1945 the “innocent years”, during which the critic believes the singer’s “voice was vibrant and her musical expression exuberant”, taking note of its resonance and distinct, “rich yet sweet” quality “that grabs you and pulls you in”. [170] Garland‘s voice would often vary to suit the song she was interpreting, ranging from soft, engaging and tender during ballads to humorous on some of her duets with other artists.

[170] Her more joyful, belted performances have been compared to entertainers Sophie Tucker , Ethel Merman , and Al Jolson . [172] Critics agree that, even when she debuted as a child, [171] Garland had always sounded mature for her age, [173] particularly on her earlier recordings. Jessel recalled that, even at only 12 years old, Garland‘s singing voice resembled that of “a woman with a heart that had been hurt”.

[172] The Kansas City Star contributor Robert Trussel cited Garland‘s singing voice among the reasons why her role in The Wizard of Oz remains memorable, writing that although “She might have been made up and costumed to look like a little girl … she didn’t sing like one” due to her “powerful contralto command[ing] attention”. Camille Paglia , writing for The New York Times , joked that even in Garland‘s adult life, “her petite frame literally throbbed with her huge voice”, making it appear as though she were “at war with her own body”. [169] Theater actress and director Donna Thomason stated that Garland was an “effective” performer because she was capable of using her “singing voice [as] a natural extension of [her] speaking voice”, a skill that Thomason believes all musical theater actors should at least strive to achieve.

Writing for Turner Classic Movies , biographer Jonathan Riggs observed that Garland had a tendency to imbue her vocals with a paradoxical combination of “fragility and resilience” that eventually became a signature trademark of hers. The New York Times obituarist in 1969 observed that Garland, whether intentionally or not, “brought with her … all the well-publicized phantoms of her emotional breakdown, her career collapses and comebacks” on stage during later performances. [24] Contributing to the Irish Independent , Julia Molony observed Garland‘s voice, although “still rich with emotion”, had finally begun to “creak with the weight of years of disappointment and hard-living” by the time she performed at Carnegie Hall in 1961.

Similarly, the live record’s entry in the Library of Congress wrote that “while her voice was still strong, it had also gained a bit of heft and a bit of wear”; author Cary O’Dell believes Garland‘s rasp and “occasional quiver” only “upped the emotional quotient of many of her numbers”, particularly on her signature songs “Over the Rainbow” and “The Man That Got Away”. Garland has been identified as a triple threat due to her ability to sing, act, and dance, [180] arguably equally well. [181] Doug Strassler, a critic for the New York Press , described Garland as a “triple threat” who “bounced between family musicals and adult dramas with a precision and a talent that remains largely unmatched”.

[182] In terms of acting, Peter Lennon , writing for The Guardian in 1999, identified Garland as a “chameleon” due to her ability to alternate between comedic, musical and dramatic roles, citing The Wizard of Oz , The Clock , A Star is Born and I Could Go On Singing her final film role as prominent examples. [183] Michael Musto , a journalist for W magazine, wrote that in her film roles Garland “could project decency, vulnerability, and spunk like no other star, and she wrapped it up with a tremulously beautiful vocal delivery that could melt even the most hardened troll”. In a review for the Star Tribune , Graydon Royce wrote that Garland‘s public image remained that of “a Midwestern girl who couldn’t believe where she was“, despite having been a well-established celebrity for over 20 years.

MGM reports that Garland was consistently tardy and demonstrated erratic behavior, which resulted in several delays and disruptions to filming schedules until she was finally dismissed from the studio, which had deemed her unreliable and difficult to manage. [176] Farrell called Garland “A grab bag of contradictions” which “has always been a feast for the American imagination”, describing her public persona as “awkward yet direct, bashful yet brash”. [165] Describing the singer as “Tender and endearing yet savage and turbulent”, Paglia wrote that Garland “cut a path of destruction through many lives.

[169] Calling her “a creature of extremes, greedy, sensual, and demanding, gluttonous for pleasure and pain”, [172] Paglia also compared Garland to entertainer Frank Sinatra due to their shared “emblematic personality … into whom the mass audience projected its hopes and disappointments”, while observing that she lacked Sinatra’s survival skills. At one point, Stevie Phillips, who had worked as an agent for Garland for four years, described her client as “a demented, demanding, supremely talented drug-addict”. [175] Ruhlmann wrote that the singer’s personal life “contrasted so starkly with the exuberance and innocence of her film roles”.

[183] Ruhlmann argues that Garland actually used the public’s opinion of her tragic image to her advantage towards the end of her career. [187][188][189][190] In 1992, Gerald Clarke of Architectural Digest dubbed Garland “probably the greatest American entertainer of the twentieth century”. [173] O’Brien believes that “No one in the history of Hollywood ever packed the musical wallop that Garland did”, explaining, “She had the biggest, most versatile voice in movies.

[183] In 2010, The Huffington Post contributor Joan E. Dowlin concluded that Garland possessed a distinct “it” quality by “exemplif[ying] the star quality of charisma, musical talent, natural acting ability, and, despite what the studio honchos said, good looks (even if they were the girl next door looks)”. AllMusic ‘s biographer William Ruhlmann said that “the core of her significance as an artist remains her amazing voice and emotional commitment to her songs”, and believes that “her career is sometimes viewed more as an object lesson in Hollywood excess than as the remarkable string of multimedia accomplishments it was“. [171] In 2012, Strassler described Garland as “more than an icon… Like Charlie Chaplin and Lucille Ball , she created a template that the powers that be have forever been trying, with varied levels of success, to replicate.”

Garland‘s live performances towards the end of her career are still remembered by fans who attended them as “peak moments in 20th-century music”. [172] She has been the subject of over thirty biographies since her death, including the well-received Me and My Shadows: A Family Memoir by her daughter, Lorna Luft, whose memoir was later adapted into the television miniseries Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows , which won Emmy Awards for the two actresses who portrayed her ( Tammy Blanchard and Judy Davis ). [192] Strassler observed that Garland “created one of the most storied cautionary tales in the industry, thanks to her the many excesses and insecurities that led to her early death by overdose”.

[197] While on tour in 1964, Garland identified “Over the Rainbow” as her favorite of all the songs she had ever recorded, to which Trussel observed that “Her career would remain inextricably linked”. According to Paglia, the more Garland performed “Over the Rainbow”, the more it “became her tragic anthem … a dirge for artistic opportunities squandered, and for personal happiness permanently deferred”. Subsequent celebrities who have suffered from personal struggles with drug addiction and substance use disorder have been compared to Garland, particularly Michael Jackson .

[170] Garland‘s elder daughter Liza Minnelli had a personal life that was almost parallel to that of her mother’s, having struggled with substance use disorder and several unsuccessful marriages. June 19, 1922, 10 a.m.: Frances was baptized at the Episcopal Church by the rector, Robert Arthur Cowling, of Hibbing ^ Fricke, John. ^ “Nuptials Turn Trio to Duet Cupid Robs Radio Team Suzanne Garland Flies to Reno to Become Bride of Musician”.

^ “dOc DVD Review: Mickey Rooney & Judy Garland Collection (Babes in Arms/Strike Up the Band/Babes on Broadway/Girl Crazy) (19391943)” . “Judy Garland Was Put on a Strict Diet and Encouraged to Take “Pep Pills” While Filming ‘The Wizard of Oz‘ ” . United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.

Well it helped me by just getting my mind off myself and … they were so delightful, they were so loving and good and I forgot about myself for a change ^ The Eddie Mannix Ledger , Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study . ^ Garland, Judy; Bogarde, Dirk; Klugman, Jack; MacMahon, Aline (October 11, 1963), I Could Go on Singing , retrieved January 31, 2017 Sanders 1990 , p. 24. Retrieved February 1, 2008. citing the United Press International article “Judy Took Too Many Pills” and containing a copy of Garland‘s death certificate.

“DIva Talk: A Chat With a Gal From Oz, Isabel Keating Plus “American Idol” Thoughts” . This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 17 June 2018 (2018-06-17), and does not reflect subsequent edits.

Judy Garland

Garland began performing in vaudeville as a child with her two older sisters, in a vaudeville group “The Gumm Sisters” and was later signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. She appeared in more than two dozen films for MGM. Garland was a frequent on-screen partner of both Mickey Rooney and Gene Kelly and regularly collaborated with director and second husband Vincente Minnelli. Other starring roles during this period included Although her film career became intermittent thereafter, two of Garland‘s most critically acclaimed roles came later in her career: she received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in Garland struggled in her personal life from an early age. The pressures of early stardom affected her physical and mental health from the time she was a teenager; her self-image was influenced by constant criticism from film executives who believed that she was physically unattractive and who manipulated her onscreen physical appearance.

Early life[edit]

Garland was born Frances Ethel Gumm on June 10, 1922, in Grand Rapids, Minnesota. She was the youngest child of Ethel Marion (née Milne; 1893–1953)”Baby” (as she was called by her parents and sisters)The family relocated to Lancaster, California, in June 1926, following rumors that her father had homosexual inclinations.

Signed at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer[edit]

In 1928, the Gumm Sisters enrolled in a dance school run by Ethel Meglin, proprietress of the Meglin Kiddies dance troupe. They appeared with the troupe at its annual Christmas show.The trio had toured the vaudeville circuit as “The Gumm Sisters” for many years by the time they performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater with George Jessel in 1934. He encouraged the group to choose a more appealing name after “Gumm” was met with laughter from the audience. According to theater legend, their act was once erroneously billed at a Chicago theater as “The Glum Sisters”.Several stories persist regarding the origin of their use of the name Garland. One is that it was originated by Jessel after Carole Lombard’s character Lily Garland in the film A later explanation surfaced when Jessel was a guest on Garland‘s television show in 1963. He said that he had sent actress Judith Anderson a telegram containing the word “garland” and it stuck in his mind.By late 1934, the Gumm Sisters had changed their name to the Garland Sisters.

Adult stardom[edit]

Garland starred in three films released in 1940: During this time, Garland was still in her teens when she experienced her first serious adult romance with bandleader Artie Shaw. She was deeply devoted to him and was devastated in early 1940 when he eloped with Lana Turner.In 1941, Garland had an abortion while pregnant with Rose’s child at the insistence of her mother and the studio since the pregnancy wasn’t approved. She had a second one in 1943 when she became pregnant from her affair with Tyrone Power.In her next film, One of Garland‘s most successful films for MGM was At this time, Garland had a brief affair with film director Orson Welles, who at that time was married to Rita Hayworth. The affair ended in early 1945, and they remained on good terms afterwards.During the filming of

Last MGM motion pictures[edit]

In April 1948, during filming for Thrilled by the huge box-office receipts of When her suspension was over, she was summoned back to work and ultimately performed two songs as a guest in the Rodgers and Hart biopic Garland was then cast in the film adaptation of She was fired from the picture on May 10, 1949, and was replaced by Betty Hutton, who stepped in to perform all the musical routines as staged by Berkeley.Garland returned to Los Angeles heavier, and in the fall of 1949, was cast opposite Gene Kelly in In addition, she insisted that director Charles Walters choreograph and stage the number. By that time, Garland had lost 15 pounds and looked more slender. “Get Happy” was the last segment of Garland was cast in the film “All I could see ahead was more confusion”, Garland later said of this suicide attempt. “I wanted to black out the future as well as the past. I wanted to hurt myself and everyone who had hurt me.”

Renewed stardom on the stage[edit]

Garland was a frequent guest on Garland made eight appearances during the 1950–51 season of

Hollywood comeback[edit]

Garland appeared with James Mason in the Warner Bros. film As shooting progressed, however, she began making the same pleas of illness that she had so often made during her final films at MGM. Production delays led to cost overruns and angry confrontations with Warner Bros. head Jack L. Warner. Principal photography wrapped on March 17, 1954. At Luft’s suggestion, the “Born in a Trunk” medley was filmed as a showcase for her and inserted over director Cukor’s objections, who feared the additional length would lead to cuts in other areas. It was completed on July 29.Upon its world premiere on September 29, 1954, the film was met with critical and popular acclaim. Before its release, it was edited at the instruction of Jack Warner; theater operators, concerned that they were losing money because they were only able to run the film for three or four shows per day instead of five or six, pressured the studio to make additional reductions. After its first-run engagements, about 30 minutes of footage were cut, sparking outrage among critics and filmgoers. Although it was still popular, drawing huge crowds and grossing over $6,000,000 in its first release, Garland was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress, and, in the run-up to the 27th Academy Awards, was generally expected to win for Garland‘s films after

Television, concerts, and Carnegie Hall[edit]

Garland appeared in a number of television specials beginning in 1955. The first was the 1955 debut episode of In 1956, Garland performed for four weeks at the New Frontier Hotel on the Las Vegas Strip for a salary of $55,000 per week, making her the highest-paid entertainer to work in Las Vegas.In November 1959, Garland was hospitalized after she was diagnosed with acute hepatitis.At the beginning of 1960, Garland signed a contract with Random House to write her autobiography. The book was to be called Her concert appearance at Carnegie Hall on April 23, 1961, was a considerable highlight, called by many “the greatest night in show business history”.In 1961, Garland and CBS settled their contract disputes with the help of her new agent, Freddie Fields, and negotiated a new round of specials. The first, titled Following a third special, During this time, Garland had a six-month affair with actor Glenn Ford. Garland‘s biographer Gerald Clarke, Ford’s son Peter, singer Mel Tormé and her husband Sid Luft wrote about the affair in their respective biographies. The relationship began in 1963 while Garland was doing her television show. Ford would attend tapings of the show sitting in the front row while Garland sang. Ford is credited with giving Garland one of the more stable relationships of her later life. The affair was ended by Ford (a notorious womanizer according to his son Peter) when he realized Garland wanted to marry him.

Political views[edit]

Garland was a life-long and relatively active Democrat. During her lifetime, she was a member of the Hollywood Democratic committee, and a financial and moral supporter of various causes, including the Civil Rights Movement. She donated money to the campaigns of Democratic presidential candidates Franklin D. Roosevelt, Adlai Stevenson II, John F. Kennedy, and Robert F. Kennedy, and Progressive candidate Henry A. Wallace.In September 1947, Garland joined the Committee for the First Amendment, a group formed by Hollywood celebrities in support of the Hollywood Ten during the hearings of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives led by J. Parnell Thomas, which was formed to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and organizations suspected of having communist ties. The Committee for the First Amendment sought to protect the civil liberties of those accused.Other members included Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall, Dorothy Dandridge, John Garfield, Katharine Hepburn, Lena Horne, John Huston, Gene Kelly, and Billy Wilder. Garland took part in recording an all-star October 26, 1947, radio broadcast, Garland was a friend of President John F. Kennedy and his wife Jacqueline Kennedy, and she often vacationed in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts. The house she stayed in during her vacations in Hyannis Port is known today as The Judy Garland House because of her association with the property.On August 28, 1963, Garland and other prominent celebrities such as Josephine Baker, Sidney Poitier, Lena Horne, Paul Newman, Rita Moreno, and Sammy Davis, Jr. took part in the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, a demonstration organized to advocate for the civil and economic rights of African Americans. She had been photographed by the press in Los Angeles earlier in the month alongside Eartha Kitt, Marlon Brando, and Charlton Heston as they planned their participation in the march on the nation’s capital.On September 16, 1963, Garland – along with daughter Liza Minnelli, Carolyn Jones, June Allyson, and Allyson’s daughter Pam Powell – held a press conference to protest the recent bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, that resulted in the death of four young African American girls. They expressed their shock and outrage at the attack and requested funds for the families of the victims. Pam Powell and Liza Minnelli both announced their intention to attend the funeral of the victims during the press conference.

Final years[edit]

In 1963, Garland sued Sidney Luft for divorce on the grounds of mental cruelty. She also asserted that he had repeatedly struck her while he was drinking and that he had attempted to take their children from her by force.After her television series was canceled, Garland returned to work on the stage. She returned to the London Palladium performing with her 18-year-old daughter Liza Minnelli in November 1964. The concert was also shown on the British television network ITV and it was one of her final appearances at the venue. She made guest appearances on A 1964 tour of Australia ended badly. Garland‘s first two concerts in Sydney were held in the Sydney Stadium because no concert hall could accommodate the overflow crowds who wanted to see her. Both went well and received positive reviews. Her third performance, in Melbourne, started an hour late. The crowd of 7,000 was angered by her tardiness and believed that she was drunk; they booed and heckled her, and she fled the stage after 45 minutes.Garland‘s tour promoter Mark Herron announced that they had married aboard a freighter off the coast of Hong Kong. However, she was not officially divorced from Luft at the time the ceremony was performed.For much of her career throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, her husband Sidney Luft had been her manager. However, Garland eventually parted ways with Luft professionally, signing with agents Freddie Fields and David Begelman. By the fall of 1966, Garland had also parted ways with Fields and Begelman. Fields’s and Begelman’s mismanagement of Garland‘s money, as well as their embezzlement of much of her earnings resulted in her owing around $500,000 in total in personal debts and in debts to the IRS. The IRS placed tax liens on her home in Brentwood, Los Angeles, her recording contract with Capitol Records, and any other business dealings in which she could derive an income.Garland was left in a desperate situation that saw her sell her Brentwood home at a price far below its value. She was then cast in February 1967 in the role of Helen Lawson in Returning to the stage, Garland made one of her last U.S. appearances at New York’s Palace Theatre in July 1967, a 27-show stand, performing with her children Lorna and Joey Luft. She wore a sequined pantsuit on stage for this tour, which was part of the original wardrobe for her character in By early 1969, Garland‘s health had deteriorated. She performed in London at the Talk of the Town nightclub for a five-week run

Death[edit]

On June 22, 1969, Garland was found dead in the bathroom of her rented house in Cadogan Lane, Belgravia, London.A British specialist who had attended Garland‘s autopsy stated that she had nevertheless been living on borrowed time owing to cirrhosis, although a second autopsy conducted later reported no evidence of alcoholism or cirrhosis.After Garland‘s body had been embalmed, Deans traveled with her remains to New York City on June 26, where an estimated 20,000 people lined up to pay their respects at the Frank E. Campbell Funeral Chapel in Manhattan, which remained open all night long to accommodate the overflowing crowd. On June 27, James Mason gave an eulogy at the funeral, an Episcopal service led by the Rev. Peter Delaney of St Marylebone Parish Church, London, who had officiated at her marriage to Deans, three months earlier.Upon Garland‘s death, despite having earned millions during her career, her estate came to US$40,000 (equivalent to $218,261 in 2019). Years of mismanagement of her financial affairs by her representatives and staff along with her generosity toward her family and various causes resulted in her poor financial situation at the end of her life. In her last will, signed and sealed in early 1961, Garland made many generous bequests that could not be fulfilled because her estate had been in debt for many years. Her daughter, Liza Minnelli, worked to pay off her mother’s debts with the help of family friend Frank Sinatra.At the request of her children, Garland‘s remains were disinterred from Ferncliff Cemetery in January 2017 and re-interred 2,800 miles (4,500 km) across the country at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery in Los Angeles.

Artistry[edit]

Garland possessed a contralto vocal range.Garland always claimed that her talent as a performer was inherited, saying: “Nobody ever taught me what to do onstage.”Jessel recalled that, even at only 12 years old, Garland‘s singing voice resembled that of “a woman with a heart that had been hurt”.Camille Paglia, writing for Writing for Turner Classic Movies, biographer Jonathan Riggs observed that Garland had a tendency to imbue her vocals with a paradoxical combination of “fragility and resilience” that eventually became a signature trademark of hers.Similarly, the live record’s entry in the Library of Congress wrote that “while her voice was still strong, it had also gained a bit of heft and a bit of wear”; author Cary O’Dell believes Garland‘s rasp and “occasional quiver” only “upped the emotional quotient of many of her numbers”, particularly on her signature songs “Over the Rainbow” and “The Man That Got Away”.Garland was known for interacting with her audiences during live performances; Garland has been identified as a triple threat due to her ability to sing, act, and dance,

Legacy[edit]

By the time of her death in 1969, Garland had appeared in more than 35 films.Turner Classic Movies dubbed Garland “history’s most poignant voice”.In recent years, Garland‘s legacy has maintained fans of all different ages, both younger and older.AllMusic’s biographer William Ruhlmann said that “the core of her significance as an artist remains her amazing voice and emotional commitment to her songs”, and believes that “her career is sometimes viewed more as an object lesson in Hollywood excess than as the remarkable string of multimedia accomplishments it was“.Garland‘s live performances towards the end of her career are still remembered by fans who attended them as “peak moments in 20th-century music”.Garland was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1997.She has twice been honored on U.S. postage stamps, in 1989 (as Dorothy)According to Paglia, the more Garland performed “Over the Rainbow”, the more it “became her tragic anthem … a dirge for artistic opportunities squandered, and for personal happiness permanently deferred”.Subsequent celebrities who have suffered from personal struggles with drug addiction and substance use disorder have been compared to Garland, particularly Michael Jackson.

Gay icon[edit]

Garland had a large fan base in the gay community and became a gay icon.

Portrayals in fiction[edit]

Garland has been portrayed on television by Andrea McArdle in On stage, Garland is a character in the musical In music, Garland is referenced in the 1992 Tori Amos song “Happy Phantom”, in which Garland is imagined to be taking Buddha by the hand. Amos also refers to Garland as “Judy G” in her 1996 song “Not the Red Baron”.

alertarticles.infoHello, my name is Silva. This is my blog about knowledge. People email me some interesting questions about life, riddles, relationships, and more and I try to answer them to the best of my ability. You will find all the knowledge of the world here!

Home